Portal to the Lesser White-fronted Goose

- by the Fennoscandian Lesser White-fronted Goose project

Literature type: Scientific

Journal: Conservation Genetics

Volume: 5 , Pages: 501-512.

DOI: 10.1023/B:COGE.0000041019.27119.b4

Language: English

Full reference: Ruokonen, M., Kvist, L., Aarvak, T., Markkola, J., Morozov, V.V., Øien, I.J., Syroechkovsky Jr., E.E., Tolvanen, P. & Lumme, J. 2004. Population genetic structure and conservation of the lesser white-fronted goose (Anser erythropus). Conservation Genetics 5: 501-512. https://www.dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:COGE.0000041019.27119.b4

Keywords: Anser erythropus, lesser white-fronted goose, Palearctic, management unit, population genetic Structure

Abstract:

The lesser white-fronted goose is a sub-Arctic species with a currently fragmented breeding range, which extends from Fennoscandia to easternmost Siberia. The population started to decline at the beginning of the last century and, with a current world population estimate of 25,000 individuals, it is the most threatened of the Palearctic goose species. Of these, only 30–50 pairs breed in Fennoscandia. A fragment of the control region of mtDNA was sequenced from 110 individuals from four breeding, one staging and two wintering areas to study geographic subdivisions and gene flow. Sequences defined 15 mtDNA haplotypes that were assigned to two mtDNA lineages. Both the mtDNA lineages were found from all sampled localities indicating a common ancestry and/or some level of gene flow. Analyses of molecular variance showed significant structuring among populations (φ ST 0.220, P < 0.001). The results presented here together with ecological data indicate that the lesser white-fronted goose is fragmented into three distinctive subpopulations, and thus, the conservation status of the species should be reconsidered.

Literature type: Scientific

Journal: Molecular phylogenetics and evolution

Volume: 23 , Pages: 339-356.

DOI: 10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00019-2

Language: English

Full reference: Donne-Goussé, C., Laudet, V. & Hänni, C. 2002. A molecular phylogeny of anseriformes based on mitochondrial DNA analysis. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 23: 339-356. https://www.dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00019-2

Keywords: anseriformes, mtDNA, control region, waterfowl

Abstract:

To study the phylogenetic relationships among Anseriformes, sequences for the complete mitochondrial control region (CR) were determined from 45 waterfowl representing 24 genera, i.e., half of the existing genera. To confirm the results based on CR analysis we also analyzed representative species based on two mitochondrial protein-coding genes, cytochrome b (cytb) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2). These data allowed us to construct a robust phylogeny of the Anseriformes and to compare it with existing phylogenies based on morphological or molecular data. Chauna and Dendrocygna were identified as early offshoots of the Anseriformes. All the remaining taxa fell into two clades that correspond to the two subfamilies Anatinae and Anserinae. Within Anserinae Branta and Anser cluster together, whereas Coscoroba, Cygnus, and Cereopsis form a relatively weak clade with Cygnus diverging first. Five clades are clearly recognizable among Anatinae: (i) the Anatini with Anas and Lophonetta; (ii) the Aythyini with Aythya and Netta; (iii) the Cairinini with Cairina and Aix; (iv) the Mergini with Mergus, Bucephala, Melanitta, Callonetta, Somateria, and Clangula, and (v) the Tadornini with Tadorna, Chloephaga, and Alopochen. The Tadornini diverged early on from the Anatinae; then the Mergini and a large group that comprises the Anatini, Aythyini, Cairinini, and two isolated genera, Chenonetta and Marmaronetta, diverged. The phylogeny obtained with the control region appears more robust than the one obtained with mitochondrial protein-coding genes such as ND2 and cytb. This suggests that the CR is a powerful tool for bird phylogeny, not only at a small scale (i.e., relationships between species) but also at the family level. Whereas morphological analysis effectively resolved the split between Anatinae and Anserinae and the existence of some of the clades, the precise composition of the clades are different when morphological and molecular data are compared

Literature type: Thesis

Language: English

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Full reference: Ruokonen, M. 2001. Phylogeography and conservation genetics of the Lesser White-fronted Goose (Anser erythropus). , Acta Universitatis Ouluensis. A Scientiae Rerum Naturalium 360. Faculty of Science, University of Oulu, Finland.

Keywords: Anser, phylogeography, conservation genetics, mitochondrial control region

Abstract:

Analyses of mitochondrial control region sequences were used to infer phylogeny of Anser species, phylogeography of the lesser white-fronted goose, and genetic background of a captive stock. The genetic distances among the Anser species ranged from 0.9 to 5.5% in the complete control region sequences and supported the view of close relatedness of these species. Among the four most closely related species, the bean, pink-footed, white-fronted and lesser white-fronted goose, the branching order is uncertain. The short internal branches and low support for the branching order suggest that the species have diverged recently within short time-intervals. The mtDNA tree obtained is incongruent with the traditional view of the species relationships, but the reasons for this remain to be clarified. Two diverged mitochondrial lineages were found in the lesser white-fronted goose and a refugial origin was proposed. Basal haplotypes are geographically widespread and indicate a recent common ancestry for populations. The derived haplotypes are confined to singular breeding populations and suggest restrictions to the present female gene flow. A shift in the frequency of the mtDNA lineages approximately coincides with a migratory divide in the Taimyr Peninsula. Low mtDNA diversity and significant difference in the haplotype frequencies observed in Fennoscandian subpopulation suggested that it should be considered as a management unit. The fossil record was examined to gain additional information about the colonisation history of the species, but was found to be of limited use. The captive lesser white-fronted goose stock used for reintroduction/restocking was shown to be incompatible with the Fennoscandian wild population. Some captive individuals carried the mtDNA of the white-fronted goose suggesting a hybrid origin. Hybridisation has probably occurred during captive propagation, but to clarify further the extent of introgression, nuclear markers should be applied. The structure and evolution of the control region were studied by comparing complete avian sequences. Saturation was found to occur at pairwise divergences of 10% as shown for third codon positions of the mitochondrial genes previously. In pairwise comparisons of the control region and cytochrome b sequences, the rate of divergence varied among the lineages. Two conserved sequence blocks showed considerable sequence conservation when compared to mammalian sequences.

Literature type: Scientific

Journal: Journal of Evolutionary Biology

Volume: 13 , Pages: 532-540.

DOI: DOI: 10.1046/j.1420-9101.2000.00184.x

Language: English

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Full reference: Ruokonen, M., Kvist, L. & Lumme, J. 2000. Close relatedness between mitochondrial DNA from seven Anser goose species. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 13: 532-540. https://www.dx.doi.org/DOI: 10.1046/j.1420-9101.2000.00184.x

Keywords: control region, mtDNA, nuclear copy, phylogeny, Pleistocene

Abstract:

The phylogenetic relationships of seven goose species and two of the subspecies representing the genus Anser were studied by approximately 1180 bp of mitochondrial DNA tRNAglu, control region and tRNAphe sequences. Despite obvious morphological and behavioural affinities among the species, their evolutionary relationships have not been studied previously. The small amount of genetic differentiation observed in the mitochondrial DNA indicates an extremely close evolutionary relationship between the Anser species. The sequence divergences between the species (0.9±5.5%) are among the lowest reported for avian species with speciation events of Anser geese dating to late Pliocene and Pleistocene. The species grouped into four mtDNA lineages: (1) snow and Ross' goose, (2) greylag goose, (3) white-fronted goose, and (4) bean, pink-footed and lesser white-fronted goose. The phylogenetic relationships of the most closely related species, bean, pink-footed and lesser white-fronted goose, indicate a period of rapid cladogenesis. The poor agreement between morphological relationships and the phylogenetic relationships indicated by mtDNA sequences implies that either ancestral polymorphism and lineage sorting, hybridization and introgression or convergent evolution has been involved.

Literature type: Scientific

Journal: International Journal of Osteoarchaeology

Volume: 8 , Pages: 280-287.

DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1212(199807/08)8:4<280::AID-OA428>3.0.CO;2-J

Language: English

Full reference: Barnes, I., Dobney, K.M. & Young, P.W. 1998. The Molecular Palaeoecology of Geese: Identification of Archaeological Goose Remains using Ancient DNA Analysis. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 8: 280-287. https://www.dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1212(199807/08)8:4<280::AID-OA428>3.0.CO;2-J

Keywords: ancient DNA, anser, Branta, geese, mitochondrial DNA, polymerase chain reaction

Abstract:

The remains of six species of geese are commonly recovered from archaeological sites in Britain dating from the Saxon and later periods. However, identification of this material to species level is hampered by a lack of morphological variation and a large overlap in size. To address this issue we obtained DNA sequence data for a section of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from modern samples of each species, and successfully identified several DNA markers for Branta species. No markers were found within the cytochrome b gene for the genus Anser. Ancient DNA techniques were then used to recover DNA from goose bones excavated from two archaeological sites. The DNA sequences enabled identification of Barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) from one site and confirmed the presence of Anser species at another.

Literature type: General

Journal: Fåglar i Uppland

Volume: 3 , Pages: 4-12.

Language: Swedish (In Swedish)

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Full reference: Delin, H. 1997. Gäss av släktet Anser. [Geese of family Anser], Fåglar i Uppland: 3, 4-12.

Literature type: Scientific

Journal: Syst. Biol.

Volume: 45 , Pages: 415-450.

DOI: 10.1093/sysbio/45.4.415

Language: English

Full reference: Livezey, B.C. 1996. A phylogenetic analysis of geese and swans (Anseriformes: Anserinae), including selected fossil species. Syst. Biol. 45: 415-450. https://www.dx.doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/45.4.415

Keywords: phyologeni, distribution, fossil, morphology, ecomorphology, comparative analysis, cladistic, geese

Abstract:

A phylogenetic analysis of modern and selected fossil geese and swans was performed using 165 characters of the skeleton, trachea, and natal and definitive integument. Five shortest trees were found (length = 318; consistency index for informative characters = 0.634), which differed only in details of relationships among three species of Branta. Thetrees supported (1) †Cnemiornis as sister group to other taxa analyzed; (2) a sister group relationship between the moa-nalos of Hawaii and other geese and swans; (3) Cereopsis as sister group of Anser, Branta, Coscoroba, and Cygnus (contra Livezey, 1986, Auk 103:737–754); (4) monophyly of Anser, Branta, and †Geochen and confirmation of generic monophyly of each; and (5) Coscoroba as sister group to Cygnus. Selectiveexclusion of fossil taxa from the analysis variably affected inferred relationships and had substantial impacts on computational efficiency. Some nodes were not robust to bootstrapping: (1) nodes relating species groups within Anser, Cygnus, and †Thambetochen and (2) the node uniting Anser, Branta, Coscoroba, and Cygnus relative to Cereopsis. Bremer (decay) indices indicated similar differences in relative support for nodes. Skeletal characters were comparatively important in establishing higher order relationships, whereas integumentary characters were critical for lower order inferences. Constrained analyses revealed that other proposed phylogenetic hypotheses entailed variable penalities in parsimony. The shortest tree(s) was considered with respect to selected ecomorphological attributes (e.g., body mass, sexual size dimorphism, clutch size) and biogeography, and a revised phylogenetic classification of the geese and swans is proposed.

Literature type: Scientific

Journal: Biochemical Genetics

Volume: 33 , Pages: 123-135.

DOI: 10.1007/BF00557950

Language: English

Full reference: Kuznetsov, S.B. 1995. Polymorphism of blood plasma proteins in the Anser and Branta genera. Biochemical Genetics 33: 123-135. https://www.dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00557950

Keywords: genetics

Abstract:

An electrophoretical analysis of blood plasma proteins of eightAnser and twoBranta species was performed. Ten polymorphic proteins in blood plasma pattern were distinguished and described: four prealbumin proteins, albumin, three postalbumin proteins, transferrin, and a single posttransferrin protein. Genus-specific and species-specific variants of Pr-1, Al, Pa-3, Pa-X, and Tf proteins were found. The species ofBranta differed inPr-1,Pa-3,Pa-X, andTf loci. TheAnser species differed, apparently, in allele frequencies of described gene loci. A single species-specific protein marker was found in swan geese only. The electrophoretic mobilities of Pr-1, TfB, and PtfA, B, and C were similar for several species ofAnser andBranta genera.

Literature type: Proceedings

Language: English

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Full reference: Vinogradov, V. G. 1990. Anser erythropus in the USSR. , Pp. 199-203 in: Matthews, G.V.T. (ed.). Managing Waterfowl Populations. Proc. IWRB Symp., Astrakhan, 1989. IWRB Spec. Publ. 12, Slimbridge.

Keywords: status

Literature type: Book

Language: German

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Full reference: Bauer, K. M. & Glütz von Blotzheim, U. N. 1968. Handbuch der Vögel Mitteleuropas. Anseriformes (1. Teil), Band 2. , Aula-Verlag Wiesbaden. 534 s.

Keywords: status

Number of results: 35