Literature type: Scientific
Journal: Science of the Total Environment
Volume: 527–528 , Pages: 279–286.
Full reference: Aloupi, M., Kazantzidis, S., Akriotis, T., Bantikou, E. & Hatzidaki, V.-O. 2015. Lesser White-fronted (Anser erythropus) and Greater White-fronted (A. albifrons) Geese wintering in Greek wetlands are not threatened by Pb through shot ingestion. Science of the Total Environment 527–528: 279–286. https://www.dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.04.083
Fecal lead (Pb) levels were investigated in the threatened European population of the Lesser White-fronted Goose (LWfG, Anser erythropus) and of the non-threatened Greater White-fronted Goose (GWfG, Anser albifrons) wintering in two wetland areas in northern Greece in order to assess the potential risk from Pb exposure. Fecal, soil and food plant samples were analyzed. Levels of Pb were normalized using Al concentrations in order to sep-arate the effect of possible ingestion of Pb shot from that of soil or sediment accidentally ingested with food. All concentrations are expressed on a dry weight basis. Geometric means of Pb content in the feces of LWfG were 6.24 mg/kg at Evros Delta and 7.34 mg/kg at Lake Kerkini (maximum values of 28.61 mg/kg and 36.68 mg/kg, re-spectively); for fecal samples of GWfG geometric means were 2.39 mg/kg at Evros Delta and 6.90 mg/kg at Kerkini (corresponding maximum values of 25.09 mg/kg and 42.26 mg/kg). Soil Pb was in the range of 5.2–60.2 mg/kg (geometric mean = 22.6 mg/kg) for the Evros Delta and between 13.4 and 64.9 mg/kg (geometric mean = 28.1 mg/kg) for Kerkini. A general linear model ﬁtted to the data showed that Pb levels were very closely dependent on Al levels in the feces from both species and at both sites indicating soil or sediment were the only signiﬁcant source of Pb; species and site, as well as their interaction, were not statistically signiﬁcant factors. For both species and at both sites exposure to Pb was evidently very mild and the observed levels of Pb were well below the proposed thresholds for lethal or sublethal effects of Pb poisoning. Soil ingestion appeared to gradually increase from October to De-cember for LWfG at Kerkini, corresponding to a gradual depletion of their food source.
Literature type: Book
Full reference: Macgillivray, W. 1837. A history of British birds, indigenous and migratory: including their organization, habits, and relations; remarks on classification and nomenclature; an account of the principal organs of birds, and observations relative to practical ornithology. , Scott, Webster, and Geary, London. Vol.1, aquatic birds. 700pp.
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